A server, in computer language, is a computer and its programs, which are at the service of other computers. The server attends and responds to the requests made by the other computers. The other computers, which make requests to it, will be the “clients” of the server.
They are precisely called servers because they serve things and are at the service of other computers. For example if you have an email, you receive it from an email server, if you want to view a web page, you receive it from a web server. If you work on a computer network, all the shared services on the network will be on a network server and so on many other services and types of servers that we will see.
The model or architecture that servers follow is that of client-server , that is, the client / s requests and the server provides the resources or services.
Servers Are Used To Manage The Resources Of a Network.
A server must always be on, since if it is turned off it will stop giving service to the others. When a server fails (shuts down or has errors) it causes other network users to have problems, because they do not have the services provided by that server.
For example, a user can configure a server to control access to a network, send / receive email, manage print jobs, or host a website.
The best known and largest network is the Internet, and it is full of servers. But beware there are servers within small and private networks, you can even make your own computer a server.
Depending on the service provided by the server, you must have specific software (programs) capable of offering those services. The hardware is simply a computer, although it is recommended that it be high-end, to respond to requests as quickly as possible.
Typically, most servers are designed to operate without any manual intervention during operation. Of course, they must first be configured correctly.
Types Of Servers
We are going to see the main types of servers and explain what each one is for:
Email Server or Mail Server: It is a computer within a network that works as a virtual post office. Transfer and store email messages over a network.
These servers have programs capable of storing mail for local users and with a set of user-defined rules that determine how the mail server should react to the destination of a specific message.
Typically these servers are divided into two different other, one for incoming mail (called POP3) and one for the outgoing mail (called SMTP):
ThePOP3 servers hold incoming email messages until the user checks their email and then transfer them to the computer when the user requests it.
The SMTP servers manage sending emails to the Internet. The SMTP server handles outgoing email and is used in conjunction with a POP3 or IMAP server for incoming email. When the user gives the order to send, the server sends it.
Another type of mail servers are IMAP that allow you to work with email messages without having to download them to your computer first. You can preview, delete, and organize messages directly on the mail server without downloading them to your computer. Examples are emails from yahoo, Hotmail, etc.
There are also the Fax servers that do the same as the mail servers, but for the reception and transmission of faxes.
FTP server: It is one of the oldest on the Internet, “file transfer protocol”, Protocol for the Transfer of Files. They are used to carry out a secure transfer of files between computers (sending files from one site to another). The FTP guarantees the security of the files and control of their transfer.
In this case, client 1 sends a request to the FTP server to send a file to client 2. The server sends it to him and client 2 receives it. All this process is carried out by means of a program called FTP installed on client 1 and 2. The server will have another program ( software ) that will be in charge of receiving and sending.
These types of servers are used to upload files from web pages to web servers, image files, videos, to make backup (backup copies), etc.
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